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China Custom Powder Metallurgy Spline Coupling for Core Shaft and Gearbox spline coupling

Product Description


Excellent powder metallurgy parts metallic sintered parts
We could offer various powder metallurgy parts including iron based and copper based with top quality and cheapest price, please only send the drawing or sample to us, we will according to customer’s requirement to make it. if you are interested in our product, please do not hesitate to contact us, we would like to offer the top quality and best service for you. thank you!

How do We Work with Our Clients
1. For a design expert or a big company with your own engineering team: we prefer to receive a fully RFQ pack from you including drawing, 3D model, quantity, pictures;

2. For a start-up company owner or green hand for engineering: just send an idea that you want to try, you don’t even need to know what casting is;

3. Our sales will reply you within 24 hours to confirm further details and give the estimated quote time;

4. Our engineering team will evaluate your inquiry and provide our offer within next 1~3 working days.

5. We can arrange a technical communication meeting with you and our engineers together anytime if required.

Place of origin: Jangsu,China
Type: Powder metallurgy sintering
Spare parts type: Powder metallurgy parts
Machinery Test report: Provided
Material: Iron,stainless,steel,copper
Key selling points: Quality assurance
Mould type: Tungsten steel
Material standard: MPIF 35,DIN 3571,JIS Z 2550
Application: Small home appliances,Lockset,Electric tool, automobile,
Brand Name: OEM SERVICE
Plating: Customized
After-sales Service: Online support
Processing: Powder Metallurgr,CNC Machining
Powder Metallurgr: High frequency quenching, oil immersion
Quality Control: 100% inspection

The Advantage of Powder Metallurgy Process

1. Cost effective
The final products can be compacted with powder metallurgy method ,and no need or can shorten the processing of machine .It can save material greatly and reduce the production cost .

2. Complex shapes
Powder metallurgy allows to obtain complex shapes directly from the compacting tooling ,without any machining operation ,like teeth ,splines ,profiles ,frontal geometries etc.

3. High precision
Achievable tolerances in the perpendicular direction of compacting are typically IT 8-9 as sintered,improvable up to IT 5-7 after sizing .Additional machining operations can improve the precision .

4. Self-lubrication
The interconnected porosity of the material can be filled with oils ,obtaining then a self-lubricating bearing :the oil provides constant lubrication between bearing and shaft ,and the system does not need any additional external lubricant .

5. Green technology
The manufacturing process of sintered components is certified as ecological ,because the material waste is very low ,the product is recyclable ,and the energy efficiency is good because the material is not molten. 

FAQ
Q1: What is the type of payment?
A: Usually you should prepay 50% of the total amount. The balance should be pay off before shipment.

Q2: How to guarantee the high quality?
A: 100% inspection. We have Carl Zeiss high-precision testing equipment and testing department to make sure every product of size,appearance and pressure test are good. 

Q3: How long will you give me the reply?
A: we will contact you in 12 hours as soon as we can.

Q4. How about your delivery time?
A: Generally, it will take 25 to 35 days after receiving your advance payment. The specific delivery time depends on the items and the quantity of your order. and if the item was non standard, we have to consider extra 10-15days for tooling/mould made.

Q5. Can you produce according to the samples or drawings?
A: Yes, we can produce by your samples or technical drawings. We can build the molds and fixtures.

Q6: How about tooling Charge?
A: Tooling charge only charge once when first order, all future orders would not charge again even tooling repair or under maintance.

Q7: What is your sample policy?
A: We can supply the sample if we have ready parts in stock, but the customers have to pay the sample cost and the courier cost.

Q8: How do you make our business long-term and good relationship?
A: 1. We keep good quality and competitive price to ensure our customers benefit ;
    2. We respect every customer as our friend and we sincerely do business and make friends with them, no matter where they come from.
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spline coupling

Understanding the torque and speed limits for different mechanical coupling types.

The torque and speed limits of mechanical couplings vary depending on their design, materials, and intended applications. Here’s an overview of the torque and speed considerations for different types of mechanical couplings:

1. Rigid Couplings:

Rigid couplings are typically designed for high torque applications. They provide a direct and solid connection between shafts, making them suitable for transmitting substantial torque without introducing significant flexibility. The torque capacity of rigid couplings depends on the material and size, and they are often used in applications with high power requirements.

Rigid couplings can handle high rotational speeds since they lack flexible elements that may cause vibration or resonance at higher speeds. The speed limits are generally determined by the materials’ strength and the coupling’s balanced design.

2. Flexible Couplings:

Flexible couplings are more forgiving when it comes to misalignment and can accommodate some axial, radial, and angular misalignments. The torque capacity of flexible couplings can vary significantly depending on their design and material.

Elastomeric couplings, such as jaw couplings or tire couplings, have lower torque capacities compared to metal couplings like beam couplings or bellows couplings. The speed limits of flexible couplings are generally lower compared to rigid couplings due to the presence of flexible elements, which may introduce vibration and resonance at higher speeds.

3. Gear Couplings:

Gear couplings are robust and suitable for high-torque applications. They can handle higher torque than many other coupling types. The speed limits of gear couplings are also relatively high due to the strength and rigidity of the gear teeth.

4. Disc Couplings:

Disc couplings offer excellent torque capacity due to the positive engagement of the disc packs. They can handle high torque while being compact in size. The speed limits of disc couplings are also relatively high, making them suitable for high-speed applications.

5. Oldham Couplings:

Oldham couplings have moderate torque capacity and are commonly used in applications with moderate power requirements. Their speed limits are generally limited by the strength and design of the materials used.

6. Universal Couplings (Hooke’s Joints):

Universal couplings have moderate torque capacity and are used in applications where angular misalignment is common. The speed limits are determined by the materials and design of the coupling.

It’s important to refer to the manufacturer’s specifications and recommendations to determine the torque and speed limits of a specific mechanical coupling. Properly selecting a coupling that matches the application’s torque and speed requirements is crucial for ensuring reliable and efficient operation in the mechanical system.

“`spline coupling

What are the temperature and environmental limits for mechanical couplings?

Mechanical couplings are designed to operate within specific temperature and environmental limits to ensure their performance and longevity. These limits can vary depending on the coupling type, materials, and the specific application. Here are some general considerations regarding temperature and environmental limits for mechanical couplings:

Temperature Limits:

Mechanical couplings are typically rated to handle a specific temperature range. Extreme temperatures can affect the mechanical properties of the coupling’s materials and lead to premature wear or failure.

High-Temperature Applications: In high-temperature environments, couplings made from materials with high-temperature resistance, such as stainless steel or high-temperature alloys, are often used. These couplings can withstand elevated temperatures without experiencing significant degradation.

Low-Temperature Applications: In low-temperature environments, special consideration must be given to the materials’ brittleness and the potential for reduced flexibility. Some couplings may require low-temperature lubricants or preheating to ensure proper operation in cold conditions.

Environmental Limits:

Mechanical couplings can be exposed to various environmental factors that may impact their performance. Manufacturers specify the environmental limits for their couplings, and it is essential to adhere to these guidelines.

Corrosive Environments: In corrosive environments, such as those with exposure to chemicals or saltwater, couplings made from corrosion-resistant materials, like stainless steel or nickel alloys, are preferred. Proper seals and coatings may also be necessary to protect the coupling from corrosion.

High Humidity or Moisture: Excessive humidity or moisture can lead to rust and corrosion, especially in couplings made from ferrous materials. In such environments, using couplings with proper corrosion protection or moisture-resistant coatings is advisable.

Outdoor Exposure: Couplings used in outdoor applications should be designed to withstand exposure to weather elements, such as rain, UV radiation, and temperature fluctuations. Enclosures or protective covers may be necessary to shield the coupling from environmental factors.

Special Applications:

Certain industries, such as food and pharmaceutical, have strict hygiene requirements. In such cases, couplings made from food-grade or hygienic materials are utilized to prevent contamination and meet regulatory standards.

It is crucial to consult the coupling manufacturer’s specifications and guidelines to determine the appropriate temperature and environmental limits for a specific coupling. Adhering to these limits ensures the coupling’s proper operation and longevity in its intended application, reducing the risk of premature wear and failures caused by extreme conditions.

“`spline coupling

Can a faulty mechanical coupling lead to equipment failure and downtime?

Yes, a faulty mechanical coupling can indeed lead to equipment failure and downtime in a mechanical system. The importance of well-maintained and properly functioning couplings cannot be overstated, and their failure can have significant consequences:

1. Loss of Torque Transmission:

A faulty coupling may not be able to effectively transmit torque from the motor to the driven load. This loss of torque transmission can result in reduced or erratic performance of the equipment.

2. Increased Wear and Damage:

When a coupling is not functioning correctly, it may introduce excessive play or misalignment between the connected components. This can lead to increased wear on bearings, shafts, gears, and other parts, accelerating their deterioration.

3. Vibrations and Resonance:

Faulty couplings can cause vibrations and resonance in the system, leading to stress and fatigue in the equipment. These vibrations can further propagate throughout the machinery, affecting nearby components and leading to potential failures.

4. Overloading and Overheating:

In some cases, a faulty coupling may not slip or disengage as intended when subjected to overload conditions. This can cause excessive stress on the equipment, leading to overheating and potential damage to the motor, gearbox, or other components.

5. System Downtime:

When a mechanical coupling fails, it often necessitates equipment shutdown for repairs or replacement. This unplanned downtime can lead to production halts, reduced efficiency, and financial losses for businesses.

6. Safety Risks:

A faulty coupling that fails to disconnect or slip during overloads can pose safety risks to personnel and equipment. It may lead to unexpected and potentially dangerous equipment behavior.

7. Costly Repairs and Replacements:

Fixing or replacing damaged components due to coupling failure can be costly. Additionally, if a faulty coupling causes damage to other parts of the system, the repair expenses can escalate.

Regular maintenance and inspections of mechanical couplings are crucial to detect early signs of wear or damage. Identifying and addressing issues promptly can help prevent equipment failure, reduce downtime, and ensure the smooth and efficient operation of mechanical systems.

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China Custom Powder Metallurgy Spline Coupling for Core Shaft and Gearbox   spline couplingChina Custom Powder Metallurgy Spline Coupling for Core Shaft and Gearbox   spline coupling
editor by CX 2024-02-21

China Professional Gear CZPT for Multiplier Gearbox with Free Design Custom

Product Description

Half spline gear coupling for multiplier gearbox

For adapting the gear pump and the PTO multiplier gearbox for tractor

Types of Splines

There are 4 types of splines: Involute, Parallel key, helical, and ball. Learn about their characteristics. And, if you’re not sure what they are, you can always request a quotation. These splines are commonly used for building special machinery, repair jobs, and other applications. The CZPT Manufacturing Company manufactures these shafts. It is a specialty manufacturer and we welcome your business.
splineshaft

Involute splines

The involute spline provides a more rigid and durable structure, and is available in a variety of diameters and spline counts. Generally, steel, carbon steel, or titanium are used as raw materials. Other materials, such as carbon fiber, may be suitable. However, titanium can be difficult to produce, so some manufacturers make splines using other constituents.
When splines are used in shafts, they prevent parts from separating during operation. These features make them an ideal choice for securing mechanical assemblies. Splines with inward-curving grooves do not have sharp corners and are therefore less likely to break or separate while they are in operation. These properties help them to withstand high-speed operations, such as braking, accelerating, and reversing.
A male spline is fitted with an externally-oriented face, and a female spline is inserted through the center. The teeth of the male spline typically have chamfered tips to provide clearance with the transition area. The radii and width of the teeth of a male spline are typically larger than those of a female spline. These specifications are specified in ANSI or DIN design manuals.
The effective tooth thickness of a spline depends on the involute profile error and the lead error. Also, the spacing of the spline teeth and keyways can affect the effective tooth thickness. Involute splines in a splined shaft are designed so that at least 25 percent of the spline teeth engage during coupling, which results in a uniform distribution of load and wear on the spline.

Parallel key splines

A parallel splined shaft has a helix of equal-sized grooves around its circumference. These grooves are generally parallel or involute. Splines minimize stress concentrations in stationary joints and allow linear and rotary motion. Splines may be cut or cold-rolled. Cold-rolled splines have more strength than cut spines and are often used in applications that require high strength, accuracy, and a smooth surface.
A parallel key splined shaft features grooves and keys that are parallel to the axis of the shaft. This design is best suited for applications where load bearing is a primary concern and a smooth motion is needed. A parallel key splined shaft can be made from alloy steels, which are iron-based alloys that may also contain chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, or other alloying materials.
A splined shaft can be used to transmit torque and provide anti-rotation when operating as a linear guide. These shafts have square profiles that match up with grooves in a mating piece and transmit torque and rotation. They can also be easily changed in length, and are commonly used in aerospace. Its reliability and fatigue life make it an excellent choice for many applications.
The main difference between a parallel key splined shaft and a keyed shaft is that the former offers more flexibility. They lack slots, which reduce torque-transmitting capacity. Splines offer equal load distribution along the gear teeth, which translates into a longer fatigue life for the shaft. In agricultural applications, shaft life is essential. Agricultural equipment, for example, requires the ability to function at high speeds for extended periods of time.
splineshaft

Involute helical splines

Involute splines are a common design for splined shafts. They are the most commonly used type of splined shaft and feature equal spacing among their teeth. The teeth of this design are also shorter than those of the parallel spline shaft, reducing stress concentration. These splines can be used to transmit power to floating or permanently fixed gears, and reduce stress concentrations in the stationary joint. Involute splines are the most common type of splined shaft, and are widely used for a variety of applications in automotive, machine tools, and more.
Involute helical spline shafts are ideal for applications involving axial motion and rotation. They allow for face coupling engagement and disengagement. This design also allows for a larger diameter than a parallel spline shaft. The result is a highly efficient gearbox. Besides being durable, splines can also be used for other applications involving torque and energy transfer.
A new statistical model can be used to determine the number of teeth that engage for a given load. These splines are characterized by a tight fit at the major diameters, thereby transferring concentricity from the shaft to the female spline. A male spline has chamfered tips for clearance with the transition area. ANSI and DIN design manuals specify the different classes of fit.
The design of involute helical splines is similar to that of gears, and their ridges or teeth are matched with the corresponding grooves in a mating piece. It enables torque and rotation to be transferred to a mate piece while maintaining alignment of the 2 components. Different types of splines are used in different applications. Different splines can have different levels of tooth height.

Involute ball splines

When splines are used, they allow the shaft and hub to engage evenly over the shaft’s entire circumference. Because the teeth are evenly spaced, the load that they can transfer is uniform and their position is always the same regardless of shaft length. Whether the shaft is used to transmit torque or to transmit power, splines are a great choice. They provide maximum strength and allow for linear or rotary motion.
There are 3 basic types of splines: helical, crown, and ball. Crown splines feature equally spaced grooves. Crown splines feature involute sides and parallel sides. Helical splines use involute teeth and are often used in small diameter shafts. Ball splines contain a ball bearing inside the splined shaft to facilitate rotary motion and minimize stress concentration in stationary joints.
The 2 types of splines are classified under the ANSI classes of fit. Fillet root splines have teeth that mesh along the longitudinal axis of rotation. Flat root splines have similar teeth, but are intended to optimize strength for short-term use. Both types of splines are important for ensuring the shaft aligns properly and is not misaligned.
The friction coefficient of the hub is a complex process. When the hub is off-center, the center moves in predictable but irregular motion. Moreover, when the shaft is centered, the center may oscillate between being centered and being off-center. To compensate for this, the torque must be adequate to keep the shaft in its axis during all rotation angles. While straight-sided splines provide similar centering, they have lower misalignment load factors.
splineshaft

Keyed shafts

Essentially, splined shafts have teeth or ridges that fit together to transfer torque. Because splines are not as tall as involute gears, they offer uniform torque transfer. Additionally, they provide the opportunity for torque and rotational changes and improve wear resistance. In addition to their durability, splined shafts are popular in the aerospace industry and provide increased reliability and fatigue life.
Keyed shafts are available in different materials, lengths, and diameters. When used in high-power drive applications, they offer higher torque and rotational speeds. The higher torque they produce helps them deliver power to the gearbox. However, they are not as durable as splined shafts, which is why the latter is usually preferred in these applications. And while they’re more expensive, they’re equally effective when it comes to torque delivery.
Parallel keyed shafts have separate profiles and ridges and are used in applications requiring accuracy and precision. Keyed shafts with rolled splines are 35% stronger than cut splines and are used where precision is essential. These splines also have a smooth finish, which can make them a good choice for precision applications. They also work well with gears and other mechanical systems that require accurate torque transfer.
Carbon steel is another material used for splined shafts. Carbon steel is known for its malleability, and its shallow carbon content helps create reliable motion. However, if you’re looking for something more durable, consider ferrous steel. This type contains metals such as nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. And it’s important to remember that carbon steel is not the only material to consider.

China Professional Gear CZPT for Multiplier Gearbox     with Free Design CustomChina Professional Gear CZPT for Multiplier Gearbox     with Free Design Custom

China OEM Spline CZPT for Core Shaft and Gearbox with Free Design Custom

Product Description

Detail Information For All Brand Core Shafts,  Screw Elements and Segmented Barrel :

Specification: 
Diameter: Ø20mm-Ø350mm

Application:
Plastic pelletizing and modification, masterbatch, paper industry, chemical industry, food, feed industry, cable materials, pharmaceutical industry, powder coating and paint.

Our Products Can Be Used In Following Extrusion:
APV, KOBE, OMC, Buhler, KraussMaffei, Theysohn, Buss, Berstorff, Toshiba, Clextral, Labtech, USEON, Coperion, Lantai, JSW, Leistritz, Keya, Maris, CZPT and others.

The types for screw elements:
Convey element, mixing element, kneading block & disk element, transition element, deep groove transfer element, side feeder element, 1 flighted, 2 flighted, 3 flighted screw elements, SME, ZME, TME and etc.

The types for segmented barrel:  
Feeding barrel, closed barrel, vent barrel, combi barrel, extended degassing barrel, combi barrel with backward venting and etc.  

The types for core shaft:  
Single Keyway, square Keyslot, high torque key button, dual keyslot, involute inner spline, round keyslot, retackle spline and etc.        

Material for screw element:
W6Mo5Cr4V2——cost-effective material

PM-HIP material : SAM10, SAM26, SAM39, CPM10V, CPM9V

Material for segmented barrel:

38CrMoAIA————-cost-effective material

Bimetallic quality——-has different quality for abrasive& corrosive resistance
PM-HIP material——–top quality

Material for core shaft:

40CrNiMo——-cost-effective material; has good performance in torque force resistance, abrasive& corrosive resistance, high temperature resistance.

Heat treatment:
Advance hardening and tempering
Nitriding treatment
Vaccum hardening
Mid/high-frequency hardening

OULIN SCREW:  YOUR LOYAL PARTNER FOR SCREW AND BARREL

 

Applications of Spline Couplings

A spline coupling is a highly effective means of connecting 2 or more components. These types of couplings are very efficient, as they combine linear motion with rotation, and their efficiency makes them a desirable choice in numerous applications. Read on to learn more about the main characteristics and applications of spline couplings. You will also be able to determine the predicted operation and wear. You can easily design your own couplings by following the steps outlined below.
splineshaft

Optimal design

The spline coupling plays an important role in transmitting torque. It consists of a hub and a shaft with splines that are in surface contact without relative motion. Because they are connected, their angular velocity is the same. The splines can be designed with any profile that minimizes friction. Because they are in contact with each other, the load is not evenly distributed, concentrating on a small area, which can deform the hub surface.
Optimal spline coupling design takes into account several factors, including weight, material characteristics, and performance requirements. In the aeronautics industry, weight is an important design factor. S.A.E. and ANSI tables do not account for weight when calculating the performance requirements of spline couplings. Another critical factor is space. Spline couplings may need to fit in tight spaces, or they may be subject to other configuration constraints.
Optimal design of spline couplers may be characterized by an odd number of teeth. However, this is not always the case. If the external spline’s outer diameter exceeds a certain threshold, the optimal spline coupling model may not be an optimal choice for this application. To optimize a spline coupling for a specific application, the user may need to consider the sizing method that is most appropriate for their application.
Once a design is generated, the next step is to test the resulting spline coupling. The system must check for any design constraints and validate that it can be produced using modern manufacturing techniques. The resulting spline coupling model is then exported to an optimisation tool for further analysis. The method enables a designer to easily manipulate the design of a spline coupling and reduce its weight.
The spline coupling model 20 includes the major structural features of a spline coupling. A product model software program 10 stores default values for each of the spline coupling’s specifications. The resulting spline model is then calculated in accordance with the algorithm used in the present invention. The software allows the designer to enter the spline coupling’s radii, thickness, and orientation.
splineshaft

Characteristics

An important aspect of aero-engine splines is the load distribution among the teeth. The researchers have performed experimental tests and have analyzed the effect of lubrication conditions on the coupling behavior. Then, they devised a theoretical model using a Ruiz parameter to simulate the actual working conditions of spline couplings. This model explains the wear damage caused by the spline couplings by considering the influence of friction, misalignment, and other conditions that are relevant to the splines’ performance.
In order to design a spline coupling, the user first inputs the design criteria for sizing load carrying sections, including the external spline 40 of the spline coupling model 30. Then, the user specifies torque margin performance requirement specifications, such as the yield limit, plastic buckling, and creep buckling. The software program then automatically calculates the size and configuration of the load carrying sections and the shaft. These specifications are then entered into the model software program 10 as specification values.
Various spline coupling configuration specifications are input on the GUI screen 80. The software program 10 then generates a spline coupling model by storing default values for the various specifications. The user then can manipulate the spline coupling model by modifying its various specifications. The final result will be a computer-aided design that enables designers to optimize spline couplings based on their performance and design specifications.
The spline coupling model software program continually evaluates the validity of spline coupling models for a particular application. For example, if a user enters a data value signal corresponding to a parameter signal, the software compares the value of the signal entered to the corresponding value in the knowledge base. If the values are outside the specifications, a warning message is displayed. Once this comparison is completed, the spline coupling model software program outputs a report with the results.
Various spline coupling design factors include weight, material properties, and performance requirements. Weight is 1 of the most important design factors, particularly in the aeronautics field. ANSI and S.A.E. tables do not consider these factors when calculating the load characteristics of spline couplings. Other design requirements may also restrict the configuration of a spline coupling.

Applications

Spline couplings are a type of mechanical joint that connects 2 rotating shafts. Its 2 parts engage teeth that transfer load. Although splines are commonly over-dimensioned, they are still prone to fatigue and static behavior. These properties also make them prone to wear and tear. Therefore, proper design and selection are vital to minimize wear and tear on splines. There are many applications of spline couplings.
A key design is based on the size of the shaft being joined. This allows for the proper spacing of the keys. A novel method of hobbing allows for the formation of tapered bases without interference, and the root of the keys is concentric with the axis. These features enable for high production rates. Various applications of spline couplings can be found in various industries. To learn more, read on.
FE based methodology can predict the wear rate of spline couplings by including the evolution of the coefficient of friction. This method can predict fretting wear from simple round-on-flat geometry, and has been calibrated with experimental data. The predicted wear rate is reasonable compared to the experimental data. Friction evolution in spline couplings depends on the spline geometry. It is also crucial to consider the lubrication condition of the splines.
Using a spline coupling reduces backlash and ensures proper alignment of mated components. The shaft’s splined tooth form transfers rotation from the splined shaft to the internal splined member, which may be a gear or other rotary device. A spline coupling’s root strength and torque requirements determine the type of spline coupling that should be used.
The spline root is usually flat and has a crown on 1 side. The crowned spline has a symmetrical crown at the centerline of the face-width of the spline. As the spline length decreases toward the ends, the teeth are becoming thinner. The tooth diameter is measured in pitch. This means that the male spline has a flat root and a crowned spline.
splineshaft

Predictability

Spindle couplings are used in rotating machinery to connect 2 shafts. They are composed of 2 parts with teeth that engage each other and transfer load. Spline couplings are commonly over-dimensioned and are prone to static and fatigue behavior. Wear phenomena are also a common problem with splines. To address these issues, it is essential to understand the behavior and predictability of these couplings.
Dynamic behavior of spline-rotor couplings is often unclear, particularly if the system is not integrated with the rotor. For example, when a misalignment is not present, the main response frequency is 1 X-rotating speed. As the misalignment increases, the system starts to vibrate in complex ways. Furthermore, as the shaft orbits depart from the origin, the magnitudes of all the frequencies increase. Thus, research results are useful in determining proper design and troubleshooting of rotor systems.
The model of misaligned spline couplings can be obtained by analyzing the stress-compression relationships between 2 spline pairs. The meshing force model of splines is a function of the system mass, transmitting torque, and dynamic vibration displacement. This model holds when the dynamic vibration displacement is small. Besides, the CZPT stepping integration method is stable and has high efficiency.
The slip distributions are a function of the state of lubrication, coefficient of friction, and loading cycles. The predicted wear depths are well within the range of measured values. These predictions are based on the slip distributions. The methodology predicts increased wear under lightly lubricated conditions, but not under added lubrication. The lubrication condition and coefficient of friction are the key factors determining the wear behavior of splines.

China OEM Spline CZPT for Core Shaft and Gearbox     with Free Design CustomChina OEM Spline CZPT for Core Shaft and Gearbox     with Free Design Custom